Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE METRO
a survey on the construction of the underground railroad in Moscow appeared at city Council repeatedly: in 1902, was considered the project of engineer P. I. Balinskiy, in 1912 — the project of engineer P. P. yureneva and others. In 1918-1920 architectural Studio, headed by A. V. Shchusev and I. V. Zholtovsky, in the reconstruction of the capital was proposed to construct the subway. This quick and convenient form of transport attracted the attention of specialists. But the need for it at the time is not yet ripe. If the existing sizes of passenger traffic could still do without the metro.
Before 1917, Moscow was served by two modes of public passenger transport — tram and horse riding. In the first years of Soviet power have increased the number of tram routes, and in 1924 opened bus traffic. By 1931 the population of the capital compared with the pre-revolutionary time has doubled. Moscow had a dense network of tram tracks and about 200 buses. 90% the volume of passenger transportation had the tram 9% — on the bus. The trams were overloaded beyond measure. On the bus was talking about how foreign the new. Then there was the need to build an underground road.
In 1931 on the basis of conducted surveys and engineering-geological Continue reading
Buildings and structures left on the planet since ancient times, for many centuries mind-boggling history buffs. From the Parthenon to the great Pyramid, it seems that there will be no end to the huge amount of information we can get from them. But often what can be observed above the ground pales in comparison to the amazing findings that are discovered under our feet. Whether they were ancient reservoirs, theaters, temples, or disguised strongholds. these monumental subterranean structures serve as a legacy of outstanding inventiveness of the people of the Ancient world.
10. Chavin de huantar. Peru
Pre-Columbian pilgrimage center of Chavin de huantar is approximately 12 thousand square meters. Consisting of artificial terraces and squares, built with Adobe bricks of buildings and the sunken Plaza, its impressive appearance confirms an important ceremonial and cultural importance of this place in the religious sphere of the ancient civilization of the Andes.
However, the essence of a place is its underground tunnels, ventilated mines, stone chambers and galleries. It is here you can see the engraved obelisks and statues in the place of their natural occurrence, and wonder the huge scale of the masonry of this building. In fact, sewage and ventilation network Continue reading