Creating a microclimate in underground structures



Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.

This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .

Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.

However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.

The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading

Notre Dame de Paris

Notre Dame de Paris

The history of the Cathedral

The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.

Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.

During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.

But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading

Gothic subculture

A brief introduction to the history of Gothic art as

Subculture-a subculture, but the story need to know :p

Gothic style, art style, which appeared to be the final stage in the development of medieval art in Western, Central and partly Eastern Europe (between the mid-12th and 15th-16th centuries.). The term “Gothic” was introduced in the Renaissance as pejorative designation of all medieval art, which was considered “barbaric”. Since the beginning of the 19th century when the art of the 10 — 12th centuries. adopted the term Romanesque style, were limited to the chronological framework of Gothic, it was identified early, Mature (high) and late phase. Gothic developed in countries dominated by the Catholic Church, and under the auspices of the feudal and ecclesiastical foundations remained in the ideology and culture of the Gothic era. Gothic art remained primarily a cult for the intended purpose and religious topics: it was correlated with eternity, with “higher” irrational forces. For Gothic, a characteristic of symbolic-allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. From the Romanesque Gothic architecture inherited the headship of the architecture in the system of the arts and traditional types of buildings. Special place in art was Gothic Cathedral — the highest example of synthesis of architecture, sculpture and painting (predominantly. stained-glass Windows). Incommensurable with the man the space of the Cathedral, verticalism its towers and arches, the subordination of sculpture architural dynamic rhythms, multi-colored glow of stained glass had a strong emotional impact on believers. Continue reading