Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.
This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .
Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.
However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.
The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE METRO
a survey on the construction of the underground railroad in Moscow appeared at city Council repeatedly: in 1902, was considered the project of engineer P. I. Balinskiy, in 1912 — the project of engineer P. P. yureneva and others. In 1918-1920 architectural Studio, headed by A. V. Shchusev and I. V. Zholtovsky, in the reconstruction of the capital was proposed to construct the subway. This quick and convenient form of transport attracted the attention of specialists. But the need for it at the time is not yet ripe. If the existing sizes of passenger traffic could still do without the metro.
Before 1917, Moscow was served by two modes of public passenger transport — tram and horse riding. In the first years of Soviet power have increased the number of tram routes, and in 1924 opened bus traffic. By 1931 the population of the capital compared with the pre-revolutionary time has doubled. Moscow had a dense network of tram tracks and about 200 buses. 90% the volume of passenger transportation had the tram 9% — on the bus. The trams were overloaded beyond measure. On the bus was talking about how foreign the new. Then there was the need to build an underground road.
In 1931 on the basis of conducted surveys and engineering-geological Continue reading
Germany: Stuttgart and Cologne
Next stop after a trip along the Romantic road in Germany was planned in Stuttgart. However, Die Straße Romantishe took longer than we had planned (and less than we wanted, when we realized where you were, and so we went at once to Cologne, where we had booked a hotel. Well, in Stuttgart got on the next day, thus making a hook under 750 miles. However, on the German autobahn so much nezdice. So, Stuttgart:
In this city I, of course, attracted and enticed the historical fact, which is closely and inseparably linked with Mercedes Benz. Here is the headquarters of the most famous, the oldest of the German automaker. Well, besides all other the most, Mercedes for me personally is, perhaps, the most respected car brand. Well, or one of the most respected.
In that part of town, where he established the company with a three-beam star, in addition to headquarters, there is a Museum of this brand. I have with great pleasure visited.
What can I say about this Museum? Much and long about him to speak, choking on the saliva and positive emotions From all automuseum that I already visited, this is, perhaps, the best. And the most well organized. In the price (8 Euro) includes use of interactive audio guide, which Continue reading