Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.
This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .
Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.
However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.
The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading
Megalithic constructions of the Urals.
Megalithic structures are one of the most impressive archaeological sites. Their various types are known in the Mediterranean, in parts of Northern Europe and on the Atlantic coast of Western Europe. Under this concept combined a variety of masonry structures: dolmens, avenues of menhirs, and rock gallery-tombs (Gimbutas 2006). In Eastern Europe up to the present time the only known megalithic structures were the dolmens of the Western Caucasus.
In recent years, appeared of megalithic monuments in the southern Urals, dated to the bronze age. Usually they are presented with avenues of menhirs, however, the sizes of these structures were not as impressive. Therefore, to call these megalithic structures with great care. However, studies over the last five years has led to the opening of a brand new Ural type of monuments that can be named megalithic with good reason.
The opening of the Ural dolmens was largely unexpected for experts, especially since it was made not by archaeologists. In the last 10 years the historians had published information about Ural dolmens, located to the North of the city Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. The initiator of these searches were Cheerful A. A. and V. G. Nepomnyaschiy. They suggested that these are ancient monuments close to Caucasian and European structures of this Continue reading
Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading