Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.
This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .
Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.
However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.
The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading
The ancient monastery of Punakha Dzong
The Punakha Dzong was known in ancient times as “the Palace of great happiness”. Punakha was built in 1637. This is the second Dzong built in Bhutan. Until 1955 Punakha was the capital of Bhutan, then the capital was moved to Thimphu. Now Punakha is the administrative centre of one of the 20 districts of Bhutan.
Myths and facts
The Dzong is situated at an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level in a valley where two main rivers of Bhutan, the Pho Chu and Mo Chu. Punakha is built on a hilly promontory. The rock rises above the river to a height of 10-storey building and stretched a length of 300 meters. The building looks like a big ship.
To the monastery are two of a number of steep steps. On both sides of the huge gate, studded with steel rivets, are little tunnels pierced in the wall of the colon. Above them are seen the narrow holes through which the monitored surroundings. Nestled in a mountain valley, cut off from all sides by winter snows and summer floods, Punakha looks absolutely impregnable. For all history of existence of this jonga no one could win. The Bhutanese, having sat behind the walls of this citadel, was challenged throughout Tibet and other invaders.
In 1907 there was crowned Ugyen wangchuck Continue reading
Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading