Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.
This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .
Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.
However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.
The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading
Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading
Australopithecus (from the Latin South, with the Greek – and the monkey) – the family of fossil anthropoid obezyanu.
Animism (from Latin – soul, spirit) – the belief in duhovnost all of the objects and phenomena of material and non-material world, i.e. what people, objects and phenomena govern the souls and spirits In the early development And the spirits and souls were directly related to material thing and even shared her dollars.Olya.
Dolmens (bratop with a table and stone) ancient burial structures of several stone blocks and slabs of great size (up to tens of thousands of pounds), vertical and horizon blocked by the massive untilnow stove D belong to different archaeological apopk.
Zarubintsy culture is the archaeological culture; the ancient tribes that lived along the middle and upper Dnieper, middle Pripyat and Desna in her century BC – I-II VV n e there are more than 300 settlements and burial grounds, of which more than 100 p – on the territory of Ukraine Media 3 To lived in a small, predominantly fortified settlements on inaccessible headlands high banks In the composition of each settlement consisted of 20-30 people; engaged in the cattle orstom, farming, fishing, hunting; had developed remesel craft.
Gold hill – 1) barrow, located 5 km Northwest of Simferopol Poured over bronze age burials In the mound was buried (V century BC) Scythian Continue reading