Cyclopean structures of antiquity
1) Fictional supernatural being of Greek mythology, symbolizing the barbarism. Depicted as giants with one eye in the middle of the forehead ( Cyclops. or rather Ciclopi means “one-eyed”). Odnoglazoe Cyclops symbolized cultural limitations. The Cyclops were sons of Uranus (heaven) and Gaia (earth), embodies the archetype of Chaos. The names of the first three kiklopas: Bronte — thunder, Sterop — “lightning”, and Arges “Perun” — show a connection of Cyclops with the elemental forces of nature.
The Cyclops belonged to the most ancient generation of gods. They were overthrown by Uranus in Tartarus, but Zeus released benefiting from their help in the fight against the titans. It is the Cyclopes gave Zeus thunder, lightning and thunderbolts, which determined his permanent epithet — “the Thunderer”. Armed perunali Zeus. Poseidon. received from the Cyclops, the Trident, and Hades. who got the helmet, defeated the titans and became the rulers of the world, answer and sharing power.
Thus, through the gifts of the Cyclops is the legitimization of the new gods — Olympians. Subsequently, the Cyclops was interrupted by Apollo. that symbolized the victory of reason over savagery. Killed Cyclops Apollo. in retaliation for what they forged the thunderbolt which Zeus struck his son, the God-healer Asclepius. For this he was sent to father to serve as a shepherd to king Admetus in Thessaly, where he multiplied his flock and together with Hercules rescued from death, the king’s wife Alcester.
According to Virgil, Cyclops. as the assistants of Hephaestus in the bowels of Etna, forged the chariot of Mars. the aegis of Pallas and the armor of Aeneas. The Cyclopes were associated ancient explain the nature of volcanoes.
In Homer the Cyclopes — a tribe of angry giants. They live in deep caves on the island of Sicily, do not know the laws and crafts, do not plow and sow, feeding on fruits, which gives rise to the earth itself. Cyclops live at the expense of gathering and cattle breeding. In Homer’s characterization reflected the negative attitude of the Greeks to the barbarian pastoralist tribes. Wide popularity of the story about the blinding Odysseus, son of Poseidon. the Cyclops Polyphemus.
Terrible and bloodthirsty giant one-eyed Polyphemus-a shepherd lives in a cave, where he piled the hearth, he milks the goats, makes the cheese, eats the raw meat. IX the song of “the Odyssey” of Homer on the adventures of Odysseus in the cave of Polyphemus, who, during the intoxication and sleep was blinded by the hero, escaped the fate of his companions, eaten by Polyphemus.
Not knowing the real name of the offender, as Odysseus called himself “nobody” blinded the giant, on whose call neighbors came running Cyclops. shouts, leading them to confusion that blinded him “no”. Having learned from Odysseus sailing his real name, Polyphemus in a rage from what happened long-standing prediction of the Oracle about his blindness it is Odysseus, throws rocks at his ships.
In Hellenistic literature Theocritus, Polyphemus is depicted in funny-ironic spirit, it is quite a peaceful shepherd, above the mess where the girls are laughing in vain and cares for the nymph Galatea, grieving of unattainable love. The myth of failed love of Polyphemus to Galatea and the terrible vengeance of her beloved Acido — Ovid.
According to Hesiod, Cyclops helpers of the God-blacksmith Hephaestus. inside mount Etna in Sicily forged the thunder and lightning for Zeus and arms for heroes. Other poets and historians Cyclops — pelasgi, vozdvigenka cyclopean constructions of huge stones without cement.
2) a Family of copepod crustaceans ( Cyclopidae ). Body length 1-5. 5 mm. Has an unpaired frontal eye (hence the name). Antennule short antenna odevatsya (used for swimming), the abdomen longer than the cephalothorax, females with two egg sacks. Heart missing. There are about 250 species. Distributed around the globe. The Cyclops mainly inhabit in freshwater, usually kept at the bottom, and few are in the water column. Predators. They feed on protozoa, rotifers, and small crustaceans. Serve as food to many fish and their fry. Can be intermediate hosts of parasitic worms (the worm, broad tapeworm and others).