What nation is the most ancient
Such a conclusion can be drawn after scientists conducted a full-scale study of DNA transcription. This was done in the framework of the project of the international interdisciplinary project to study human genomes. Now we can say that inhabiting southern Africa, Khoisan peoples who speak so-called clicking languages, are descendants of the ancient race of the separation of peoples that occurred more than 100 thousand years ago. That is, long before the ancestors of modern humans began to settle in Eurasia. To such conclusion scientists came after research into the human genome, the study material was taken from 220 Bushmen and tribal koi.
Was allocated a huge number of variations in each of the studied genomes, the number that exceeded 2.3 million. This so-called odnodolnye polimorfny – differences posledovatelnosti DNA size in one nucleid. That allows to consider the development of a species over time. And then by comparison determine the temporal distance between organisms. After this research, it was determined that the ancestors Kayaev became a separate people more than 100 thousand years ago. Therefore, their descendants are the heirs of one of the most ancient genomes.
Most interesting is that due to the isolation of these peoples dwelt in a sort of “genetic reservoir” and the genotype of these peoples remained almost intact for all these 100 thousand years. Therefore they can be called the most ancient people on Earth. But still, even after these studies, it is impossible to say how and where he formed modern man. Apparently, the genome of a modern human genes were made of many Nations and species. Although in the study of the genome of Bushmen managed to identify several “universal” genes, which were before the ancestors of the Khoi became one people.
Some of them (ROR2, SULF2 and RUNX2) regulate the growth of bone, cartilage and the formation of those parts of the skeleton, which give people a more “gracile” appearance compared with other primates (for example, mutations in ROR2 cause, such as brachydactyly, or korotkoplodnyh, and variations in RUNX2 associated with some important morphological features of the structure of the cranial bones, which, in turn, are related to the large size of the human brain). Other (SDCCAG8, LRAT, SPTLC1) are associated with sensory perception, neuronal functions and development of brain tissues (e.g., mutations of SDCCAG8 are associated with microcephaly, and LRAT – with Alzheimer’s disease). These genes are common to the Bushmen and other people.