The Gothic cities of medieval Europe
Go to 700 years ago in Europe. SLIDE 1 AT this time throughout Western Europe began to grow in the city. They grew on the crossroads, on the banks of navigable rivers, where it was convenient to arrange the fair. Every town in those days needed protection turned into a real fortress, with towers and gates, which were closed every night. During the day the city was open for trading. VER 2
The width of the streets of the medieval city is highly varied. The widest street is 7-8 meters, and the smallest not more than 2 meters, or meter. One of the streets of Brussels “Street person” because two weren’t there to disperse. Traffic was pedestrians, animals and carts.
Closely appressed to each other houses with gabled roofs formed a solid wall of narrow streets. Everyone tried to build a house on his own. the most beautiful and splendid buildings overlooked the Central square. here stood a huge Cathedral, which could accommodate all residents.
Compared to a modern city of the medieval population was very scarce. Only a few cities, such as London and Paris, consisted of several dozen residents. SLIDE 3
Originally the only public building in the city was the Cathedral. Around him were placed the stalls of artisans and merchants. The Cathedral bell-tower was determined by the city, and her alarm bells had ushered in the disaster, fire, epidemics. VER 4
Gothic cathedrals were built from stone. But as if a stone wall has disappeared, it has only the frame – pillars with pillars and arches. The wall turned into a delicate stone structures, as if overcoming the earth’s gravity, rushed in the sky. SLIDE 5
SLIDE 6 the Gothic Cathedral was built not on a hill and on cliffs ( as in Russia). It is a temple for the city life. It has grown its stately towers and sharp spire among the close and crooked streets. At the bottom of its FAS of hell, facing the square, the portals are the entrances. This shallow arches with the statues of saints.
SLIDE 7 the Cathedrals were adorned with stained-glass Windows. Stained glass is colored glass that filled the window space. Subjects were paintings of Bible scenes or events from people’s lives. Missed the stained glass Windows colored rays and filled the air with transparent colorful animated tale.
SLIDE 8 of Particular importance was the stained glass – Gothic rose. This is a large window with tracery sash on the facade of the Cathedral, high above the entrance.
SLIDE 9,10 IN those days, the sculpture was inseparable from the architecture. Cathedrals were decorated inside and out by the hundreds, and even thousands of reliefs and statues depicting God and the virgin Mary, the apostles and saints, bishops and kings.
SLIDE 11 On this slide you can see the decoration of the Gothic Cathedral in Florence (Italy). You may notice that the walls in comparison with the Russian Church missing something? (icons) but candles put, although a little differently. What has replaced the icons? (Sculpture)
SLIDE 12 Before you is the dome of the temple he also frescoed, and Russian.
SLIDE 13, 14 You can see the Gothic Church in the section. Top view similar to the Russian Church, but the basic design is different. The basic principle of design is: arch is not based on wall pressure arch is passed on the arches and on the columns. This innovation allowed much easier to design due to redistribution of loads, and the walls turned into a simple lightweight “shell”, the thickness did not affect overall carrying capacity of the building, which allowed to do a lot of Windows and wall paintings, for lack of walls, lost the art of stained glass and sculpture.
Arches are becoming more elongated, pointed, expressed the main idea of Gothic architecture — the idea of aspiration of the temple up. Often in place of the support set of pointed spires turrets.
The SLIDE 15 to review the crowd of the city very interesting. Nobles, knights, priests, scientists and craftsmen – people of different professions and classes dressed differently. Clothing of the rich was colored and decorated with embroidery. The poor had no right to dress brightly. According to the suit, color and decorations you can immediately tell who this man is, what he does. In the Gothic costume, as in architecture was dominated by vertical lines, emphasized the aspiration up, the ability to live an earthly life, but to have the soul of the spiritual world. The suit gave the man a magical appearance. Not accidentally paint wizards as characters of this era.
Men dressed in skin-tight leotards, women in skirts with huge plumes. The top was very narrow, it has extended figure and made her thinner. Shoes were made of colored leather, the toe was pointed and lengthened. Acute headdresses represented the uniformity with pointy towers and spires.
3. Practical work.
Design and painting of a medieval Gothic Cathedral.
Construct the outline of the medieval Cathedral. Fold the sheet located vertically in half and then half again. When you deploy the sheet will be divided into 4 parts by vertical lines. Fold the side of the quarters again in half vertically.
In place of the two centre halves will be the roof of the Cathedral. It can be of different shapes.
Right and left of the roof of the tower will be located. Choose the appropriate form for them.
Left to cut the silhouette of the Cathedral.
To fulfill the outline of the ornaments of our Cathedral. It is a must. portal, Gothic rose Windows with stained glass. The rest of the decor will be lines and arches.
Paint the Cathedral one or two colors, if you want to make the spires of a different color. It is better to choose light colors: gray, blue, ocher.
In the next lesson we will decorate the dried cathedrals stained-glass Windows, as well as porisuem patterns with pastels or markers.
4. Summing up.
Looked like a medieval European town ( the fortress, which is closed at night and during the day in the Central square near the Cathedral there is an active trade)
-What is the difference between the Gothic city from Russian? ( In Russia the Church stands on the hill, and here in the city)
– What is common? ( encompass the city wall, fortress)
_ give examples of conformity architecture and clothing. Pointy hats and shoes – uniformity with pointed spires).