Dictionary – Cultural Studies


Australopithecus (from the Latin South, with the Greek – and the monkey) – the family of fossil anthropoid obezyanu.

Animism (from Latin – soul, spirit) – the belief in duhovnost all of the objects and phenomena of material and non-material world, i.e. what people, objects and phenomena govern the souls and spirits In the early development And the spirits and souls were directly related to material thing and even shared her dollars.Olya.

Dolmens (bratop with a table and stone) ancient burial structures of several stone blocks and slabs of great size (up to tens of thousands of pounds), vertical and horizon blocked by the massive untilnow stove D belong to different archaeological apopk.

Zarubintsy culture is the archaeological culture; the ancient tribes that lived along the middle and upper Dnieper, middle Pripyat and Desna in her century BC – I-II VV n e there are more than 300 settlements and burial grounds, of which more than 100 p – on the territory of Ukraine Media 3 To lived in a small, predominantly fortified settlements on inaccessible headlands high banks In the composition of each settlement consisted of 20-30 people; engaged in the cattle orstom, farming, fishing, hunting; had developed remesel craft.

Gold hill – 1) barrow, located 5 km Northwest of Simferopol Poured over bronze age burials In the mound was buried (V century BC) Scythian warrior hryvnia gold, iron shell re, with an iron sword in leather scabbard, and a quiver of arrows 180, 2) burial construction of a representative of the Bosporan nobility of the IV century BC on the outskirts Cercis Kerch.

Stone grave – megalopodinae hill in the floodplain near the river of milk with Patience Melitopol district of Zaporozhye region, where in 1890 was opened the ancient speakers of the trowel (petroglyphs), These petroglyphs are in an outstanding monument of primitive art in the territory Ukrainan.

Cannibalism (or antropofagia) – the eating of human flesh was common among many tribes and peoples associated with this feature of primitive consciousness, as the Anatomical fetishism fetishism (the belief that some key parts of the human body (heart, head, eyes, blood) contains high life force – mana) and encourages the eating of certain parts or the entire human tell.

Catacomb culture – archaeological culture of the early bronze age, established in the beginning of XX century after the excavations of burial mounds in the basin of the Seversky Donets QC Attractions in Ukraine are common in the southern steppe truly Left Bank, and partly on the right Bank of the Dnieper, in the sea of Azov and the Crimea in General, the QC end III – first half II thousand BC in addition to the territory of modern Ukraine, covered skirts and Kalmyk steppe and In the burial mound were found numerous burials the Deceased were buried mostly in the catacombs (hence the name of culture), dug in the walls of the burial pits Mogilny.

The dolmens (from Breton – the circle and the stone) – circle, supposed with separate standing stones (the most famous one is Stonehenge in England) Is one of the types of megalithic structures built By a mainly Neolithic and bronze age To new generally consists of large (up to 6-7 m in height) of the stones standing vertically, form one or more concentric circles and encircling the area in the center of which is a dolmen or a menhir To the most common in Europe, also in Asia and America Believe that By ritual structures, modeling the space of primitive ludina people.

Ancestor worship – veneration of the spirits of deceased relatives that occurred in a primitive society, a form of animism KP began with the care of the deceased (for example, from the habit of placing in the grave of food, weapons, etc.) Over time of KP the p lost to the cult of the gods, but retained important sachenhausen.

Magic (a Greek – affliction), is based on the belief that certain actions cause similar results: the spear hit the animal provides a good hunt for this kind of animals; Polyviny of water from the pitcher causes the rain, etc. The elements of M are found in many religions (icons, Holy water, prayers for rain, baptism in Christianity, many rituals in Judaism and islamam).

Megalithic structures, the megaliths (from the Greek. – and mega stone) – archaeological monuments, built of one or many blocks of wild or roughly processed stone To M include dolmens, menhirs, cromlechs They are represented in Western Europe, Siberia, the Caucasus, in Ukraine, their purpose is not always possible ustanovitvi.

Neolithic (gr. – new and stone) – stone of the new day, which replaced the Mesolithic period (approximately VIII-II thousand BC) the transition from subsistence economy (collecting, hunting) to producing (farming, ranching), although the assignment and continue to play an important, rollroll.

Paleolithic – old stone age, the first of two periods of the stone age the stone age the Division on the Peninsula and the Neolithic (new stone age) was introduced in the XIX to the Beginning of P date from about 800 thousand years to about 13 thousand years ago tops.

Pithecanthropus (gr. monkey and man) – an ancient man In N many primitive traits: small brain volume of the box (approximately 900 cm), strong slope of the forehead, developed radakovi cushion, etc. However, in the P really you erabilera straight gait on two legs To close kinanthropometry.

Sinanthropus – the fossil form (found in the cave of Zhoukoudian near Beijing) In comparison with the skull of Pithecanthropus, the skull is characterized by increased volume of brain boxes (1050 cubic inches, compared to 850 ku kill, cm on average in Pithecanthropus), higher and less sloping leblom.

Taboo is a strong prohibition T can belong both to individuals and to social groups in General, the ideas of the ancient people of T violation was punished by higher powers of T was part of the General system of professional social control, ancient legal and moral predstavleniyami.

Talion in primitive society is the principle of determination-responsibility for the Main thing in it is the absolute precision of retribution for harm caused (literally “an eye for an eye, tooth for tooth, death for death”) the Accuracy of reprisal was the termination condition ovou revenge and “exploitability” of the conflict Is an ancient idea of justice. TSE nidans wallenda about spravedlivosti.

A thick tomb of a Scythian Kurgan IV century BC in the present Dnipropetrovsk region of bulk Height – 8.6 m, diameter – 70 m Under the embankment discovered two tombs: one of them buried the noble warrior, the second-schifino and her infant child, in different places lay four dead servants In T m found weapons, earthenware and metal tableware, more than 600 of gold jewelry Especially great artistic and historical value of stanovist ü a sword in a sheath bound in gold and a large gold pectoral – pectoral, pectoral.

Totemism – the belief in common origin and blood kinship between ancestral group and some animals (mostly), plant, object or phenomenon of nature called totem in His name called the whole game a generic UPA totem is not a deity, not leaning in front of him, and consider him a relative, older brother, father, friend T is associated with the system of taboo – the prohibition to kill and eat the totemic zivotniho.

Trypillian culture – archaeological culture of the Neolithic sites which I found from Trypillia in the Kyiv region in the late XIX T to cover the territory right-Bank Ukraine Existed in IV-II thousand Dong e Public body States was a Patriarchal worldview of the media is to linked to the cult of fertility, life-giving forces of nature, the cult of ancestors is to call another culture drawn ceramicware cerami.

Fetishism (port magic) – conferring objects (fetishes) is a magical ability to intentionally influence on man and his life the Remnants of f are stored in the belief in amulets, talismans, oberegay.

Chernyakhiv culture is archaeological culture of the II-VII centuries, and is distributed mainly on the territory of Ukraine in the Dnieper forest-steppe the Name H comes from to thrower near the village of Chernyahov (now kagarlitskiy district, Kiev region y) During the excavations found the remains of homesteads, which were arranged in rows and consisted of three buildings (housing, barns, Riga), places workshops (pottery, milling, etc todo).

Tossa de Mar
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