Ancient underground structures
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE METRO
a survey on the construction of the underground railroad in Moscow appeared at city Council repeatedly: in 1902, was considered the project of engineer P. I. Balinskiy, in 1912 — the project of engineer P. P. yureneva and others. In 1918-1920 architectural Studio, headed by A. V. Shchusev and I. V. Zholtovsky, in the reconstruction of the capital was proposed to construct the subway. This quick and convenient form of transport attracted the attention of specialists. But the need for it at the time is not yet ripe. If the existing sizes of passenger traffic could still do without the metro.
Before 1917, Moscow was served by two modes of public passenger transport — tram and horse riding. In the first years of Soviet power have increased the number of tram routes, and in 1924 opened bus traffic. By 1931 the population of the capital compared with the pre-revolutionary time has doubled. Moscow had a dense network of tram tracks and about 200 buses. 90% the volume of passenger transportation had the tram 9% — on the bus. The trams were overloaded beyond measure. On the bus was talking about how foreign the new. Then there was the need to build an underground road.
In 1931 on the basis of conducted surveys and engineering-geological surveys on the planned route was drawn up the preliminary design of shallow tunnels. In the autumn of the same year in Rusakovskaya street laid the first mine began excavation of the experimental plot and preparation for execution of major works; here metrostroiteli met with serious difficulties caused by the presence of underground watercourses. In this regard, we have developed a variant of the project of the underground with a combination of deep and shallow tunnels of zalozeni to ensure the safety of buildings and underground utilities. Invited by the city Council for examination of the draft Metropolitan Professor A. V. Liverovskiy justified the need to “go deep foundations”, which was adopted in the final settlement of the question.
The theoretical framework that defined the design methodology and technology of underground construction, were laid in the works of such great scientists as A. M. Terpigorev, V. M. Keldysh, L. V. Nicolai, A. A. Skochinsky,
N. Davidenkov, A. F. Loleit, S. N. Rozanov, B. D. Vasiliev, N. A. Qi – topic. In addressing these issues in practice, was attended by prominent experts of transport A. N. Passek, V. L. Makovsky and others, as well as the Committee’s scientific and technical assistance to Clinic under the supervision of academician G. M. Krzhizhanovsky.
In the spring of 1932 started the construction of the first phase of the metro. The Director and simultaneously the chief engineer Metrostroi was a engineer II. II. Rotert, translated from the construction of the Dnieper. For the first time in the country created a complex set of facilities including underground stations, passages and escalator tunnels, plenums, electrical, sanitary-technical and other devices. Special attention was paid to ensuring the Mac – P. Rotert (1880-1954)
largest facilities for passengers and the overall safety of the movement, to achieve the high reliability of rolling stock, escalators, devices, ways of energy supply.
In the construction of the underground involved the entire country. From Donbass arrived 1600 drillers and miners. On the scene were sent to many Communists and Komsomol members in the capital. Most of the builders were young people: only in 1933 was attended by 15 thousand young enthusiasts of Moscow. From the Urals and from Siberia to the construction site sent metal, Leningrad enterprises has supplied machinery and equipment, from the Central regions of Ukraine received building materials; from the Crimea, from the Caucasus, the Altai, the Urals and the Far East the best varieties of marble. Dnepropetrovsk factory produces iron tubing, the Kuzbass metallurgists supplied rails; Mytishchi machine factory produced the first cars. Orders for metro performed 540 enterprises.
The Moscow metro was a complex of outstanding works of architecture and decorative arts. In creating the stations, each of which had unique appearance, and was attended by many major architects A. V. Shchusev, I. A. Fomin, D. N. The Chekulin, A. N. Dushkin, V. G. Gelfreich, N. J. Collie, B. M. Iofan. In close collaboration with the architects worked famous artists P. D. Korin, V. A. Favorsky, A. A. Deineka, sculptors N. V. Tomsky. E. V. Vuchetich, V. I. Mukhina, M. G. Manizer.