A brief introduction to the history of Gothic art as
Subculture-a subculture, but the story need to know :p
Gothic style, art style, which appeared to be the final stage in the development of medieval art in Western, Central and partly Eastern Europe (between the mid-12th and 15th-16th centuries.). The term “Gothic” was introduced in the Renaissance as pejorative designation of all medieval art, which was considered “barbaric”. Since the beginning of the 19th century when the art of the 10 — 12th centuries. adopted the term Romanesque style, were limited to the chronological framework of Gothic, it was identified early, Mature (high) and late phase. Gothic developed in countries dominated by the Catholic Church, and under the auspices of the feudal and ecclesiastical foundations remained in the ideology and culture of the Gothic era. Gothic art remained primarily a cult for the intended purpose and religious topics: it was correlated with eternity, with “higher” irrational forces. For Gothic, a characteristic of symbolic-allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. From the Romanesque Gothic architecture inherited the headship of the architecture in the system of the arts and traditional types of buildings. Special place in art was Gothic Cathedral — the highest example of synthesis of architecture, sculpture and painting (predominantly. stained-glass Windows). Incommensurable with the man the space of the Cathedral, verticalism its towers and arches, the subordination of sculpture architural dynamic rhythms, multi-colored glow of stained glass had a strong emotional impact on believers.
The development of Gothic art and reflected a fundamental change in the structure of medieval society: the beginning of the formation of centralized States, the growth and consolidation of cities, extension of secular forces — urban trade and craft, and courtly-knightly circles. With the development of social consciousness, craft, and technology has weakened the foundations of medieval religious and dogmatic worldview, expanded the possibility of knowledge and aesthetic understanding of the real world; developed new architectural styles and tectonic system. Intensively developed urban planning and civil architecture. Urban architectural ensembles included religious and secular buildings, fortifications, bridges, wells. The main town square was often surrounded by houses with arcades, retail and warehouse space in the lower floors. From the square diverges the main streets and the narrow facades 2-, rarely 3-storey houses with high Gables lined up along the streets and embankments. The city was surrounded by strong walls with ornate towers travel. The castles of the kings and feudal lords were gradually transformed into a complex of fortress, Palace and religious buildings. Usually in the center of the city, dominating its buildings, was the castle or the Cathedral, which became the focus of city life. It, along with the divine service were held theological debates, played out the mystery, was the Assembly of citizens. The Cathedral was conceived a sort of vault of knowledge, a symbol of the Universe, and its art system, which combined solemn grandeur with passionate dynamics, the abundance of plastic motifs with a strict hierarchical system of subordination, not only expressed the ideas of the medieval social hierarchy and authority of the divine force over man, but also the growing consciousness of citizens, the creative greatness of the human collective effort.
Bold and sophisticated frame structure of the Gothic Cathedral, embodied the triumph of daring and engineering of human thought, allowed to overcome the massiveness of the Romanesque buildings, to facilitate the walls and vaults, to create a dynamic unity of the internal space. In Gothic an enrichment and complication of the synthesis of arts, the extension of the system of subjects, which reflected the medieval view of the world. Axial form of art was sculpture, which received a rich ideological and artistic content and developed of plastic form. The ossification and closure of the Romanesque statues were replaced by the mobility of the figures, their appeal to each other and to the viewer. Have any interest in real natural forms, physical beauty and human feelings, a new interpretation of the received themes of motherhood, mental suffering, martyrdom and sacrifice of man. In Gothic organically intertwined lyricism and tragic affects, sublime spirituality and social satire, the fantastic, the grotesque and folklorist, acute observations of life. In the Gothic epoch blossomed miniature book and there was the altar painting, reached a high-rise decorative art, connected with a high level of development of craft-guilds.
The Gothic style originated in Northern France (Ile-de-France) in the mid-12th century and flourished in the 1st half of the 13th century Stone Gothic cathedrals in France received its classical form. Typically, this is 3-5-nenye Basilica with a transverse nave – transept and polugrudov bypass chorus (“deambulatorio”), which adjoins the radial chapels (“the wreath chapels”). Their tall and spacious interior lit by flickering colored stained glass. The impression of irrepressible motion through the air to the altar is created by rows of slender pillars, a powerful takeoff pointed Lancet arches, quickening rhythm of the arcades of the upper gallery (triforia). Thanks to the high contrast of the main and semi-dark of the aisles occurs picturesque aspects of wealth, the feeling of the infinity of space. The structural basis of the Cathedral — a frame made of poles (in Mature Gothic — beam columns), and based on them Lancet arches. The building structure consists of rectangular cells (travel) limited 4 the 4 pillars and arches, which along with the arches-ribs form the skeleton of the cross vault filled light weight small arches — strikings. The lateral thrust of the main nave vault is transmitted by means of the foot arches (arc*butane) on the outer pillars, buttresses. Freed from the load of the wall between pillars erupt arched Windows. Neutralization of the thrust of the arch by bringing out the key design elements helped to create a feeling of lightness and spatial freedom of the interior. 2-tower West facades of the French cathedrals, with 3 “perspective” portals and patterned round window (“rose”) in the centre combine the striving to the summits with a clear balance of articulation. On the facades vary arches and rich architectural and decorative plastic parts — patterned winery, phials, краб6ы, etc. Statues on the consoles in front of columns and portals in their upper arched gallery, the reliefs on the plinths and in the tympanums of the portals, as well as on the capitals of columns form a whole story-system, which includes the characters and episodes of Scripture, allegorically images. The best works of Gothic plastics — statues of the facades of the cathedrals in Chartres, Reims, Amiens, Strasbourg, imbued with spiritual beauty, sincerity and nobility of feeling. The decor is rhythmically organized and strictly subordinate to the architectural articulation of the facade, which resulted in a slim tectonics and proportions of the statues, the solemnity of their poses and gestures. Other parts of temples are also decorated with reliefs and statues, floral ornaments, images of fantastic animals; characterized by abundance in the decoration of secular motifs (scenes work of artisans and peasants, grotesque and satirical images). Variety and themes of stained glass, in the range which was dominated by red, blue and yellow tones.