Megalithic constructions of the Urals
Megalithic constructions of the Urals.
Megalithic structures are one of the most impressive archaeological sites. Their various types are known in the Mediterranean, in parts of Northern Europe and on the Atlantic coast of Western Europe. Under this concept combined a variety of masonry structures: dolmens, avenues of menhirs, and rock gallery-tombs (Gimbutas 2006). In Eastern Europe up to the present time the only known megalithic structures were the dolmens of the Western Caucasus.
In recent years, appeared of megalithic monuments in the southern Urals, dated to the bronze age. Usually they are presented with avenues of menhirs, however, the sizes of these structures were not as impressive. Therefore, to call these megalithic structures with great care. However, studies over the last five years has led to the opening of a brand new Ural type of monuments that can be named megalithic with good reason.
The opening of the Ural dolmens was largely unexpected for experts, especially since it was made not by archaeologists. In the last 10 years the historians had published information about Ural dolmens, located to the North of the city Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. The initiator of these searches were Cheerful A. A. and V. G. Nepomnyaschiy. They suggested that these are ancient monuments close to Caucasian and European structures of this type. Limited excavations Yekaterinburg archeologists several of them revealed fragments of Russian ceramics that gave grounds to attribute these structures to the XVII-XIX centuries and to suggest that it was the furnace lumberjacks or storage of products (frost and others 2004). In the past few years in search of dolmens in this district is engaged in group Slepuhina his Berdyugina N. Yu. and Galina S. S. in the Summer of 2006 with pishminskaya dolmens reviewed by S. A. Grigoriev and L. V. Ivashko. They took these objects to the megalithic tradition Eneolithic (Grigoriev and others 2006). To date, the number of megalithic structures reached 150 (slepuhin 2007). In 2007. one of the megaliths was examined by V. D. Viktorova, who found in the immediate vicinity ayatsk fragments of pottery of Chalcolithic. Similar monuments were registered on the territory of the Chelyabinsk region (Yurin 2007). The impetus for new studies of these objects was the discovery in 2004. complex megalithic complex on the island of Faith on the lake. In Turgoyak of Chelyabinsk region.
Vera island is situated near the Western shores of the lake. In Turgoyak of the Chelyabinsk region on the outskirts of Miass. The island is small, around 6.5 hectares On the island identified 33 of the monument, which occupy a third of the island. All of them are confined to the southern and Western part of the island. Megaliths are located along the Central crest of the island from East to West.
Megalith 1 is a depth in the ground stone structure, covered by a mound. It is built along the crest of the hill and carved into the rocky ground. The walls are built of rectangular plates by the method of dry masonry, laid in two rows.
The slabs were covered with a layer of sandy loam and turf. The total length of the bridge is 18m, width is about 6m.
In the interior of the structure is fixed with several chambers connected with each other by corridors.
The whole structure is covered with massive stone slabs. Their length varies (from 1.5 to 3.5 m. the Width is 0.75-1.3 m. The weight of the largest plate is 15-17 tons. In the Eastern part, South of the outlet structure is not preserved. The boards here went down gradually and was covered with turf.
The megalith 2 is located 65 metres to the West of the first. Its dimensions are following: length – 8.5 m, width – 2,5-4m. the Building is situated on a slope that descends to the West, in the East wall of the building was cut down. The Western wall was built of stones. The southern, larger camera, has a distinct rectangular shape and a size of 3×4 m The West recorded a very clear entrance height 60-70cm, formed by two protruding walls of the portal, built of flat stone blocks. The portal closed with a small plate. All this chamber is covered with four slabs.
To the North of this chamber is fixed a passage in the corridor leading to the Northern chamber. It was built of larger boulders and covered with slabs. From the floor of the corridor on the surface remained only one plate.
North camera is small in size (3.5 x 2.25 m) and a regular rectangular shape. The chamber is covered with stone slabs. One of the plates has dimensions of 1.3×1.3 m. (Grigoriev, Menshenin 2004).
Megalith 3 is formed by three walls: a longitudinal three large boulders, and the North end of the upright plate. Floor slabs are missing. The megalith refers to the type of gallery tombs.
Archaeological research 2005-2007. conducted a comprehensive study of the island of Faith the joint expedition of the Chelyabinsk branch of Urals branch of Russian Academy of Sciences and Ufa scientific centre of RAS (head of the SA. Grigoriev).
During excavations in the largest megalith 1 was discovered material belonging to the Chalcolithic era (lipchinskaya culture). However, there have been found fragments of pottery krististevens gumauskas culture of the early iron age. Therefore, there is a problem with the Dating of the megalithic complex on the island of Faith.
The results of 2007 on the island of Faith have helped to clarify the date of occurrence of megaliths in the Urals: the transition from the Neolithic to the Chalcolithic (Grigoriev and others 2007).