Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE METRO
a survey on the construction of the underground railroad in Moscow appeared at city Council repeatedly: in 1902, was considered the project of engineer P. I. Balinskiy, in 1912 — the project of engineer P. P. yureneva and others. In 1918-1920 architectural Studio, headed by A. V. Shchusev and I. V. Zholtovsky, in the reconstruction of the capital was proposed to construct the subway. This quick and convenient form of transport attracted the attention of specialists. But the need for it at the time is not yet ripe. If the existing sizes of passenger traffic could still do without the metro.
Before 1917, Moscow was served by two modes of public passenger transport — tram and horse riding. In the first years of Soviet power have increased the number of tram routes, and in 1924 opened bus traffic. By 1931 the population of the capital compared with the pre-revolutionary time has doubled. Moscow had a dense network of tram tracks and about 200 buses. 90% the volume of passenger transportation had the tram 9% — on the bus. The trams were overloaded beyond measure. On the bus was talking about how foreign the new. Then there was the need to build an underground road.
In 1931 on the basis of conducted surveys and engineering-geological Continue reading
Pyramids in China
Mysterious structures that are found in different parts of the world, the pyramids have attracted the attention of both scientists and ordinary people interested in history and cosmology. The pyramids in China were first described by European salesman Schröder only at the beginning of the twentieth century, unlike similar constructions in Egypt and Central America that are famous around the world for a long time. Chinese pyramids are concentrated around the cities of XI’an and the three suns. The most famous chain of pyramids in the valley North of Sanjana, stretching for fifty kilometers and resembling the milky way. Pyramids in China by its architecture divided into stepped, consisting of two or more terraces, and not speed. Speed is reminiscent of the pyramids of the Sun and moon in Mexico.
White pyramid in China
The great White pyramid in China is the highest of the pyramids, located on the territory of the country. The great White pyramid in China is about 300 m, which is 2 times the height of the pyramid of Cheops. Only in the 90-ies of the last century, an Austrian researcher Hausdorf, with the permission of the authorities of China, visited the ancient structure to study. A pyramid constructed of tightly compacted clay, in ancient times it was lined with close-fitted blocks of white stone. At the present time because of the devastating impact of natural factors and of life Continue reading