Building of buildings and constructions under the ground has its own characteristics, the complexity increases when the object is built in the conditions of permafrost.
This is due to the special properties of permafrost, which should be considered when designing industrial and civil objects. The existing recommendations in this area focused mainly on the preservation of permafrost, the creation of special conditions that hinder the development of their thawing and degradacii their physico-mechanical properties .
Practical implementation of these recommendations has led to widespread use in these climate zones pile foundations, subfield ventilated, etc. significantly reduce the heat ducts from the buildings to the ground, which prevents them from thawing.
However, the need to ensure public safety in cases of technological disasters, the requirements of bodies for civil defense and emergencies give the task of construction of underground structures, including in the conditions of permafrost, a particular specificity.
The existing experience of building such facilities Continue reading
Megalithic constructions of the Urals.
Megalithic structures are one of the most impressive archaeological sites. Their various types are known in the Mediterranean, in parts of Northern Europe and on the Atlantic coast of Western Europe. Under this concept combined a variety of masonry structures: dolmens, avenues of menhirs, and rock gallery-tombs (Gimbutas 2006). In Eastern Europe up to the present time the only known megalithic structures were the dolmens of the Western Caucasus.
In recent years, appeared of megalithic monuments in the southern Urals, dated to the bronze age. Usually they are presented with avenues of menhirs, however, the sizes of these structures were not as impressive. Therefore, to call these megalithic structures with great care. However, studies over the last five years has led to the opening of a brand new Ural type of monuments that can be named megalithic with good reason.
The opening of the Ural dolmens was largely unexpected for experts, especially since it was made not by archaeologists. In the last 10 years the historians had published information about Ural dolmens, located to the North of the city Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. The initiator of these searches were Cheerful A. A. and V. G. Nepomnyaschiy. They suggested that these are ancient monuments close to Caucasian and European structures of this Continue reading
The ancient monastery of Punakha Dzong
The Punakha Dzong was known in ancient times as “the Palace of great happiness”. Punakha was built in 1637. This is the second Dzong built in Bhutan. Until 1955 Punakha was the capital of Bhutan, then the capital was moved to Thimphu. Now Punakha is the administrative centre of one of the 20 districts of Bhutan.
Myths and facts
The Dzong is situated at an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level in a valley where two main rivers of Bhutan, the Pho Chu and Mo Chu. Punakha is built on a hilly promontory. The rock rises above the river to a height of 10-storey building and stretched a length of 300 meters. The building looks like a big ship.
To the monastery are two of a number of steep steps. On both sides of the huge gate, studded with steel rivets, are little tunnels pierced in the wall of the colon. Above them are seen the narrow holes through which the monitored surroundings. Nestled in a mountain valley, cut off from all sides by winter snows and summer floods, Punakha looks absolutely impregnable. For all history of existence of this jonga no one could win. The Bhutanese, having sat behind the walls of this citadel, was challenged throughout Tibet and other invaders.
In 1907 there was crowned Ugyen wangchuck Continue reading