Notre Dame de Paris
The history of the Cathedral
The term “Gothic” (from the name of the Germanic tribe is ready) emerged in the Renaissance. Gothic called any art which did not conform to classical antiquity forms. In art history it is customary to distinguish early, Mature (high) and late(“flamboyant”) Gothic.
Among the cathedrals of early Gothic architecture the most majestic and, of course, the famous Notre Dame de Paris (Notre Dame Cathedral). The construction of the Cathedral on île de La Cité was begun in the XII century on the initiative of the Paris Bishop Maurice de Sully. and lasted nearly 170 years. The first stone was laid by the king Louis VII in 1163 G.
During this period the Romanesque style gradually gave way to Gothic. It is the synthesis of two architectural styles, the Notre-Dame de Paris owes its unique appearance. This is not a squat Romanesque Church, but not yet soaring Gothic Church.
But still new style prevails: in the contours of the Cathedral reign of vertical and pointed forms. Thanks to tapering upwards wall niches and narrow Windows with tracery columns, Cathedral “flows”. A flat surface is minimized, as if the building consists of a game of volumes, the contrasts of light and shade. Especially plastic nature of the architecture of Notre Dame expressive in Eastern Continue reading
The most famous towers of the world
There’s just so much interesting that so want to visit every corner of the Planet. However, to do this, unfortunately, is possible only to units. But to learn something new and interesting. For example, today we talk about the world’s largest constructions.
Talking about famous towers in the world, it is impossible not to remember the very first structure, which had gathered around his erection thousands of people. This, of course, talking about the tower of Babel. the presence of which is confirmed not only by religious legends, but also historical evidence. This tower was a multi-level complex, which ended with the temple of Marduk under his dome.
Very often construction projects of a political or technical importance towered without the ambitions or goals to achieve the level of cultural monuments. That’s what happened with the construction of the world famous Eiffel tower in Paris, which now collects near every day hundreds of tourists from all over the world. Initially it disgusted the French, who considered the erection of ugliness for the whole city. Well-known cultural figures of the time opposed its construction and sent lots of petitions, notes of protest to the city administration. However, the “iron lady” Continue reading
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE METRO
a survey on the construction of the underground railroad in Moscow appeared at city Council repeatedly: in 1902, was considered the project of engineer P. I. Balinskiy, in 1912 — the project of engineer P. P. yureneva and others. In 1918-1920 architectural Studio, headed by A. V. Shchusev and I. V. Zholtovsky, in the reconstruction of the capital was proposed to construct the subway. This quick and convenient form of transport attracted the attention of specialists. But the need for it at the time is not yet ripe. If the existing sizes of passenger traffic could still do without the metro.
Before 1917, Moscow was served by two modes of public passenger transport — tram and horse riding. In the first years of Soviet power have increased the number of tram routes, and in 1924 opened bus traffic. By 1931 the population of the capital compared with the pre-revolutionary time has doubled. Moscow had a dense network of tram tracks and about 200 buses. 90% the volume of passenger transportation had the tram 9% — on the bus. The trams were overloaded beyond measure. On the bus was talking about how foreign the new. Then there was the need to build an underground road.
In 1931 on the basis of conducted surveys and engineering-geological Continue reading